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exordium  the introduction
Arrangement of    1. exordium  |  2. narratio  |  3. partitio
Classical Oration   4. confirmatio  |  5. refutatio  |  6. peroratio

The introduction of a speech, where one announces the subject and purpose of the discourse, and where one usually employs the persuasive appeal of ethos in order to establish credibility with the audience.

Sources: Aristotle 3.14; Ad Herennium 1.4.6-1.7.11; Cic. De Inv. 1.15-18; Cic. Top. 25.97; Cic. De Or. 2.78-80; Quintilian 4.1



 
narratio  the statement of facts
Arrangement of    1. exordium  |  2. narratio  |  3. partitio
Classical Oration   4. confirmatio  |  5. refutatio  |  6. peroratio

The second part of a classical oration, following the introduction or exordium. The speaker here provides a narrative account of what has happened. Quintilian adds that the narratio is followed by the propositio, a kind of summary of the issues or a statement of the charge.

Connections to Other Parts of Rhetoric




 
confirmatio  the proof
Arrangement of    1. exordium  |  2. narratio  |  3. partitio
Classical Oration   4. confirmatio  |  5. refutatio  |  6. peroratio

Following the division / outline or partitio comes the main body of the speech where one offers logical arguments as proof. The appeal to logos is emphasized here.



 
refutatio  the refutation
Arrangement of    1. exordium  |  2. narratio  |  3. partitio
Classical Oration   4. confirmatio  |  5. refutatio  |  6. peroratio

Following the the confirmatio or section on proof, comes the refutation. As the name connotes, this section of a speech was devoted to answering the counterarguments of one's opponent.

Related Figures

Related Topics of Invention

Connections to Other Parts of Rhetoric



 
peroratio  the conclusion
Arrangement of    1. exordium  |  2. narratio  |  3. partitio
Classical Oration   4. confirmatio  |  5. refutatio  |  6. peroratio

Following the refutatio and concluding the classical oration, the peroratio conventionally employed appeals through pathos, and often included a summing up (see the figures of summary, below).

Related Figures

Connections to Other Parts of Rhetoric