to two or more groups and comparisons are made
Try to control variables that might influence the dependent variable
Groups should be similar
Similar to experimental but the independent
variables are not manipulated but have already
The groups are then compared on the independent
variables to determine the effects on the dependent
Single parent Vs two parent homes on student
Sighted Vs non-sighted students on gross motor
Smokers Vs non smokers on CHD
Discipline problem students Vs. well behaved
students on student achievement.
Seeks to determine the relationship between
Is there a relationship
Books in the home and IQ
Driving speed and accidents
Activity and CHD
Education and income
Uses questionnaires and interviews to gather
Used to summarize data about groups
What are the
attitudes of teachers related to teacher evaluation?
What should the characteristics of the Superintendent be?
Looks at total picture.
How do teachers perceive inclusion?
data about a situation through extensive interviews and
observations (teacher assessment).
In depth exam of one individual
Analysis of content
of a written document
Basic not aimed at solving problems
Discovery of new knowledge
Knowledge for the sake of learning
Applied research is aimed at solving an immediate
Research related to actual problems
Sometimes difficult to tell the difference
An abstraction from observed events.
Word that represents similarities between objects
or events that are otherwise different.
Example: fish or airplane
Cannot be identified by pointing to objects.
More complex abstraction.
Combine concepts and less complex constructs
Example: walking, jogging, gardening, housework
can be combined to form the construct of physical
Usually identified according to how they are
Must define concepts and constructs
ability to think abstractly
Attendance is the number of days school was attended
One that provides
meaning to a concept or construct
Specifies what operations must be performed in order to measure the variable
Usually defined by how the variable is measured or by the steps taken by the
researcher to produce certain expectations or conditions.
Reflect some concept or construct
Variables take on different values
Examples: height, weight, social class, IQ, test scores, etc.
A constant is a fixed variable
graders, high school girls,
Put into groups;
Sex, occupation, income
Only two classes
male Vs female, pass Vs fail
of variables within a range
height, weight, age, test scores
Independent - Active- Directly manipulated
May have many
May be independent in one study and dependent in another
Independent -Attribute-Cannot be manipulated-
Sometimes called assigned variables
(characteristics-sex, age, race,etc.)
Related to outcome
The study of
the relationship between motivation and achievement
If you want to know how motivation is related to achievement
Achievement is the dependent variable and motivation is the independent
The effect of a new teaching method on student
The relationship between blood pressure, stress,
and activity on coronary heart disease.
Year round school Vs. 9 month school on student
Interaction between observer and subjects
John Henry Effect
Problems with measurement