Make your own free website on
Statistical Analysis

     * Organize data
     *  Infer from sample to population
     * Must be familiar with to read articles and interpret basic test information
    * Observations into numbers

Types of Data
             Used to determine the appropriate statistical analysis and type of data.

Nominal Data
             Place in categories
             Mutally exclusive
             Numbers must be exclusive
                  0 = males  1 = females
             Count the # of observations or percentage of observations

Ordinal Scale
             Ranks objects or individuals
             How much or how little
                  If A>B and B>C then A>C
             Greater than more than
             Direct comparison in terms of attribute
             Rank 1-2-3-4-5
             The distance can vary

Interval Scale
             More Precise
             Orders objects according to amount of attribute
             Equal intervals
             Equal differences
             Order & distance have meaning
             No true zero point

Ratio Scale
             Highest Level
             True zero point
             Equal intervals
             Physical and Motor Performance

             Represents Most Often
             18, 19, 20,21,21,22,23,24,
                  Mode = 21
                  Mode = 20 & 21 Bimodal

             Not a stable measure
             Two modes from different populations are often different
             Seldom reported
             Used with Nominal Data

              50% cases above and below
              10, 15,  20,  25, 30
              Median = 20
            Relates to middle. Must put numbers in order   (low to high or high to low).

          50% cases above and below
          10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
          Median = 12.5
          Ordinal statistic based on rank order

MEAN = sum of score : N

Type Scores
             Mean = Interval or ratio
             Median = Ordinal Statistic
             Mode = Nominal
             Mean is more stable
                  Means will vary less than median or mode
                  More frequently used
                  Best indicator of combined performance of entire group
             Median = typical performance

Learning Objectives
             Know the following:
                  Types of data and how used (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)
                  Descriptive statistics (Measures of Central Tendency mean, median, mode)
                  How to calculate descriptive statistics
                  Advantages and disadvantages